Thursday, October 3, 2019

Minorities in Usa Essay Example for Free

Minorities in Usa Essay Background to Immigration 1. Which groups of immigrants made up the American nation at the end of the 18th century? Which waves of immigrants were there in the 19th century? Where did they come from? †¢ English colonists, Pilgrims, who set sail in 1620 on the Mayflower †¢ Swedes began their migration to America in 1638 as an organized group of colonizers sent by the Swedish Government to establish a colony in Delaware †¢ In 1655, the colony was lost to the Dutch. †¢ During the colonial era (1680-1776) most of the immigrants came from Northern Europe. †¢ In the mid-1840s, Swedish migration began and continued up to World War I. †¢ During this wave (1820-1890: â€Å"old immigration†) immigrants from Germany and Ireland came to the U.S, as well as groups, from England, the Netherlands, Spain, Italy, the Scandinavian countries, and Eastern Europe. †¢ In a third wave (1890-1930: â€Å"new immigration†) more immigrants came from southern and eastern Europe and from Mexico, Canada and Japan 2. Characterize immigration from 1900 to 1948. †¢ In 24 years the volume of immigrants rose up to 15.5 million †¢ Americans became afraid of losing their culture, which lead to a more frequent occurrence of racial issues †¢ In the 1920s the Federal Government restricted immigration, what soon led to a decrease of it 3. Which percentage of the American population is non-European in origin today? Which are the largest minority groups and how many members do they comprise? †¢ 35% of the American population is non-European in origin †¢ 35904000 black people make up the largest minority group with 12,8% 4. What is meant by the terms â€Å"melting pot† and â€Å"salad bowl†? What evidence is there for racial tension? Give reasons for this. †¢ They describe the American society along with its cultural and ethnic diversity. †¢ Melting Pot: all ethnicities and their cultures have blended to form a single, diverse American culture †¢ Salad Bowl: many distinct cultures exist side by Each group keeps its own identity and customs. †¢ Racial issues were not addressed until the civil rights movement of the 1960s †¢ Racial tensions have been expressed in a series of race riots †¢ Yet racial prejudices and religious intolerance still exist Immigration Legislation 5. Which measures were taken to regulate immigration during the 20th century (legislation)? What did they aim to do, how effective were they and how do they reflect policy changes with regard to immigration? What laws are in force at present? Era of Restriction: †¢ A policy of restricting immigration ended the open door era. †¢ Immigration Act of 1917: all newcomers over 16 years of age had to pass a literacy test or would have been rejected. Workers from India, Indochina, Afghanistan, Arabia, the East Indies and other smaller Asian countries were not approved. †¢ Quota or Johnson Act of 1921: the number of immigrants from each country was limited to 3% of the foreign-born of that nationality as recorded in the U.S. census of 1910. †¢ Immigration or Johnson-Reid Act of 1924: reduced the annual number of immigrants to 165,000 Era of liberalization: †¢ McCarran-Walter Act of 1952 and the Hart-Cellar Act of 1965 made needed skills the criterion for the first 50% of visas for each country. The Western Hemisphere was provided with 120,000 visas per year, the Eastern Hemisphere was granted an annual number of 170,000. †¢ Immigration Reform and Control Act (IRCA) of 1986: allowed illegal immigrants who had been in the US before 1982 to apply for legal residence, set fines and penalties for employers who hired illegal immigrants. †¢ Immigration Act of 1990: raised the annual number of immigrant visas by 200,000, doubled the annual number of asylum seekers who could become permanent residents. †¢ Immigration Act of 1996: more border barriers, more immigration agents, stiffer penalties for smuggling peoples, easier deportation of illegals and terrorists. 6. What is a â€Å"green card† and how can it be obtained? †¢ A green card is a US permanent residence visa. †¢ It enables any person to live and work permanently and legally in the United States †¢ Three options to obtain a green card: 1.the US Department of State allocates some 50,000 diversity visas per year to applicants from certain, winners are chosen by a random drawing. 2.Non-US-citizens with a special educational qualification can obtain it apart from common application procedures 3.Marriage with an US-citizen or with a green card-holder respectively. 7. What is â€Å"affirmative action†? †¢ It calls for minorities and women to be given special consideration in employment, education and contracting decisions. †¢ I also can call for an admissions officer faced with two similarly qualified applicants to choose the minority or a woman over the white or the man. References †¢ Bernard, William S. (1998), â€Å"Immigration: History of U.S. Policy†, in: David Jacobson, ed., The Immigration Reader. America in a multidisciplinary perspective, Oxford, 48-91. †¢ Bromhead, Peter (1988), Life in Modern America, Essex. †¢ Kleinsteuber, Hans J. (1984), Die USA. Politik, Wirtschaft, Gesellschaft, Hamburg. †¢ Mauk, David, John Oakland (20023), American Civilization. An Introduction, London – New York. †¢ Wersich, Rà ¼diger B., Hrsg., (1996), USA-Lexikon. Schlà ¼sselbegriffe zu Politik, Wirtschaft, Gesellschaft, Geschichte und zu den deutsch-amerikanischen Beziehungen, Berlin.

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